Assessment of the Sector of Public Vocational Universities in Poland from the Point of View of their Efficiency
Purpose: The aim of the article is to present the results of efficiency studies using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method, as well as the Tobit model using examples of 29 public vocational universities operating in Poland. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research methodology is the DEA model in variants CCR-0, CCR-I, BCC-0, BCC-I. These are models based on the radial reduction of inputs in an input-oriented model. Taking into account the degree of differentiation of ineffective DMUs, it was decided to use the SE CCR-I model. Continuing the analysis and drawing conclusions from the above-mentioned DEA methods, the Tobit model was used in the next stage. Findings: From the point of view of the aim of the research, the SE DEA CCR-I model turned out to be the most useful. First, thanks to the removal of the limitation related to the maximum value of the evaluation of the efficiency of the studied DMU, a broader and more precise characterization of the efficient facilities was obtained. It became possible to distinguish among facilities classified as efficient, going beyond the mere statement that in their case there is efficiency at level 1. Second, the model was not so much focused on differentiating inefficient facilities, showing a picture of facilities with efficiency scores above 1, without compromising the quality of evaluating facilities with efficiency below 1. Practical Implications: The DEA method basically allows one to determine whether the object studied converts its expenditures into results in an optimal way, i.e., it allows for determining the effectiveness of the object under study. Determining the effectiveness of the functioning of public vocational universities is important for the future of this sector. Originality/value: The application of the DEA method to research the effectiveness of universities is not as often used as in the case of entities operating for profit. This is due to the complexity of the selection of inputs and outputs. The most common analyses using DEA methods relate to academic universities. Hence the need to extend such research to public vocational universities, that matter in the transfer of human resources to the labor market, is very important.