Regional Differences in Energy Policy Changes of EU Countries in 2012-2021
Purpose: Among EU countries, there is a widespread consensus regarding the necessity of implementing specific changes in the field of energy policy. However, due to political, economic, and social factors, the extent of changes introduced by individual countries varies. The aim of the article is to assess the degree of diversity in the changes implemented by individual EU countries between 2012 and 2021. Design/Methodology/Approach: The assessment of changes in the energy policy pursued by individual countries was based on the examination of changes that occurred during the analyzed period among selected 15 variables. Using the k-means method, homogeneous groups of countries were identified based on the recorded changes in diagnostic variables. The study covered all 27 EU member states. Findings: The decision-making by individual countries related to their energy policy is significantly linked to the specific socio-economic conditions of each country. Analyzing the decisions made by other countries and the information about the consequences of these decisions can largely contribute to objectivity in the pursued energy policy. Practical Implications: Identifying differences in the energy policies of individual EU countries and describing the effects of their actions can contribute to a revision of the existing policies in this area by other countries. This can lead to the development of a more effective energy policy for the EU as a whole. Originality/Value: The issues related to energy security, especially in the context of the armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine, are significant elements of the EU's energy policy. Individual countries, taking into account their internal conditions, approach this matter in various ways, especially regarding the goal of reducing dependence on external energy sources.