Cyber Security of Remote Work in Poland and the EU - Selected Aspects
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to present cyber security issues in the context of the development of remote work in the European Union and Poland , as well as to identify the cyber security challenges facing individual countries, their institutions and business entities. Design/Methodology/Approach: The article analyzes the changes that have occurred in the area of remote work in recent years and assesses the impact that these changes have caused in the level of cyber security of entities and employees using IT solutions to perform their duties remotely. The research method adopted by the authors was a survey method conducted via the Internet (Computer-Assisted Web Interview) on a representative group of 1,108 Poles aged 18-65 and secondary research, based on an analysis of the literature, research results and reports on cyber security and remote working. Findings: As the number of people performing their work remotely using information technology continues to grow, including especially in the wake of the Covid 19 pandemic, the number of cyber threats to infrastructure and data belonging to companies and institutions has increased. The research shows that one of the key elements influencing the level of cyber security in the context of remote work is the digital competencies related to this area among employees performing their duties in a virtual work environment. EU countries have taken a number of measures to reduce and close the competence gap that exists in the market with regard to cyber security issues. Unfortunately, one can notice a significant difference in the scope of these activities between Poland and other EU countries. Therefore, Poland should take more active measures to create a comprehensive system of acquiring and developing digital competencies related to protection against digital threats among people already in the workforce, as well as among children and young people. The construction of educational programs and training in the field of cyber security is necessary not only in the context of the following development of remote work, but is also a prerequisite for the safe development of the digital economy. Practical implications: The critical conclusions presented in the article are a starting point for further research, relating to the competence gap in cyber security in the context of changes related to the digitization of the economy and the labor market, which will allow the development of a set of measures that will be necessary to increase the cyber security of companies, institutions and the economy as a whole in Poland. Originality/Value: The authors pointed to the ongoing changes in the labor market, including an increase in the number of employees performing their duties remotely, and the associated cyber security problems. The analysis of the problem points to insufficient competence in cyber security among employees and those entering the labor market and the low effectiveness of educational programs to date, as well as the need for a stronger inclusion in the Polish cyber security system of active measures aimed at raising the level of digital competence, including competence in the area of digital security and digital resilience as key to the further development of the digital economy and modern forms of employment. The conclusions formulated in this article are a contribution to the discussion on building a comprehensive cyber security system in Poland.