Cyber Protection Activities for Citizens in Poland Compared to the EU
Purpose: The aim of the article is to present the legal solutions for cyber security in the European Union and in Poland, as well as to identify the cyber security challenges faced by individual countries, their institutions and society. Design/Methodology/Approach: The article analyzes the activities undertaken at the national and international level to build IT security systems and assesses the activities in this area in Poland and Europe to date. Based on the data collected, the main obstacles to improving cyber security competence were identified, as well as proposals for action in the area under study. The research method adopted by the author is secondary research, based on the analysis of literature, research results and legal regulations on cyber security. Findings: EU countries have taken a number of measures to increase security in this area, including the development of training programs and the construction of comprehensive educational programs on protection against cyber threats. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of cybersecurity education in Poland, especially for young people and seniors, groups that are particularly vulnerable due to lack of access to cybersecurity training provided by employers. Therefore, Poland should take more active measures to improve cybersecurity education, including through teacher training, the development of specialized educational programs, and the dissemination of knowledge on the safe use of new technologies. This is essential to ensure the digital security of institutions, businesses and citizens. Practical implications: The critical conclusions presented in the article are a starting point for further research, including the education of those groups most exposed to digital threats, which will allow the development of a set of actions that will be necessary to increase the cyber security of citizens in Poland. Originality/Value: The author pointed out the measures taken to raise the level of cyber security and the most important obstacles these measures face. The analysis of the problem points to the insufficient competence of citizens in the field of cyber security and the low effectiveness of educational programs to date, and the need for a stronger inclusion in the Polish cybersecurity system of active measures aimed at raising the level of digital competence among citizens, including competence in the area of digital security and resilience as key to the further development of the digital economy and digital society. The conclusions formulated in this article are a contribution to the discussion on building a comprehensive cyber security system in Poland.