Combatting Cross-Border Customs Crime at the External Border of the European Union on Selected Examples
Purpose: The article aims to describe and explain the phenomenon of cross-border customs crime. It presents a typology of authorities and institutions dealing with combating cross-border customs crime at the external border of the European Union, based on the example of the movement of people and goods, such as cigarettes, alcohol and fuel. Design/methodology/approach: The authors attempted to analyse customs smuggling in 2018-2021 on the basis of publicly available data from reports on illegal transport of cigarettes, alcohol and fuel, which relate to combating cross-border customs crime of excise goods, to show the scale of the phenomenon on selected examples. They analysed the movement of travellers at the EU’s external border by indicating the total number of travellers crossing the EU’s external border in 2020 and 2021. They presented the number and nationality of travellers detained for attempts to cross the border in violation of the law in the 2020–2021 period. The method of statistical analysis and legal comparisons in this area were used for the analysis. Findings: There are various difficulties in cross-border areas, among others, related to the coordination of the management of social and economic activities in an increasingly interactive world. When dealing with cross-border issues such as security, organized crime, drug trafficking and people smuggling, both countries sharing a common border have a duty to stop them. Practical implivations: Crime as a social phenomenon does not stay within one state. It has direct impact on the interests of several countries and becomes cross-border. Experts say that cross-border crime characterizes only some of the transnational crime. Originality value: From the point of view of scientific research, this issue is considered insufficiently described, which is confirmed by the lack of scientific publications on the specific issue under consideration.