Risks of Transporting Dangerous Goods by Rail: The Case of Poland
Purpose: The aim of the article is to present the topics related to the implementation of transport processes, in particular the transport of dangerous goods by rail in Poland. Design/Methodology/Approach: The article presents an in-depth analysis of the literature on the subject and international and Polish legal acts, as well as internal documents of PKP Polskie Linie Kolejowe SA (Polish State Railways JSC). Findings: The article is devoted to the analysis of threats resulting from the transport of dangerous goods by rail transport, their significance as well as the opportunities and dangers resulting from it for Poland. In addition, the empirical part focuses on the issue of the potential occurrence of the phenomenon of terrorism due to Polish-Ukrainian economic relations during the armed attack on the Ukrainian population by Russia. Practical Implications: Dangerous goods are a specific group of goods transported by rail in Poland. Due to the particularly high risk to property, health, human life and the natural environment that this type of transport entails, its organization is strictly defined by law. The basic legal act regulating the transport of dangerous goods in various modes of transport in Poland is the Act on the transport of dangerous goods. Additionally, the transport of dangerous goods by rail is subject to the Regulations for the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID), which is one of the annexes to the Convention on International Carriage by Rail (COTIF). The implementation of various solutions and provisions of European law into Polish law should be assessed as definitely positive. Originality/Value: Moreover, rail, as the safest inland mode of transport, is a natural candidate for the transport of dangerous goods. However, so that the transport of this type of goods is not equated with an increase in risk and the occurrence of negative events, it is necessary to monitor and strictly enforce compliance with the provisions in transport practice. However, the main threats adversely affecting the course of transport processes include, inter alia, terrorist acts or cybercrime.