Changes of EU Countries Positions in the International Trade of Food, Drinks and Tobacco in 2016, 2019 and 2020: Influence of Coronavirus Pandemic
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is an explanation of an independency or dependency of particular countries of the European Union on food imports in spite of the fact that EU is net exporter of food. Moreover, the author considers an influence of the coronavirus pandemic on changes of positions of particular EU member-countries in the international trade of food, drinks and tobacco (named food in this article). Design/Methodology/Approach: The design is finding the influence of the recession of 2020 caused by the corona pandemic on changes of food exports and imports of particular EU countries and perspectives. The research method is a describing political-economic analysis that bases on statistical data. The approach covers a description of relatively stable positions of particular EU countries in international trade of food including importance of food in their exports and imports of all products. Findings: There were ten net exporters in food in EU in 2016. Most important of them were, The Netherlands, Spain, Poland, France, and Denmark. The first four countries did not change their positions in 2016-2019. However, the quantity of EU net exporters rose to thirteen countries in 2019. EU food surplus increased in spite of the pandemic and recession in 2020. Spain and Poland increased their food trade surplus in 2020 significantly. Britain, the first EU net importer in food leaved European Union on 31 January 2020. Germany advanced from second to first position of the EU net importer of food in 2020. The corona virus pandemic in 2020 did not cause big changes on the position of EU net exporters and had a small influence on the EU international trade in food. Practical Implications: The result can be considered to elaborate the short-term and long-term EU agricultural and trade policy. Originality/Value: Original research paper.