Financing of Activities Increasing the Energy Efficiency of Residential Buildings in Poland
Purpose: The aim of the study is to review and assess the sources and effects of financing for investments in the energy modernisation of buildings as an element shaping a low-carbon economy in Poland. Design/methodology/approach: An answer was sought to the question of why owners of single-family houses remain marginalised in supporting the financing of energy modernisation projects. The financial tools were reviewed in the context of the effects achieved, e.g., reduction of energy poverty of households, reduction of low emissions, counteracting contradictory incentives. Findings: Single-family house owners constitute the vast majority (80%) in the ownership structure of dwellings in Poland. However, they are not a homogeneous group. A dispersed group of owners is a barrier to systemic access with an offer of financial support. Practical Implications: When developing a modernisation programme for single-family buildings, the key issue is to precisely identify the programme's addressees. The legal and financial instruments and the institutional structure should be differentiated for each target sub-group. For wealthier households, the offer of tax benefits should be developed. The poorest households should be protected above all from energy poverty, especially in view of the rise in energy prices observed in recent weeks. Originality/Value: The article systematizes information on the impact of construction on climate change and the development of energy policy.