Impact of Tourism on Crime in the Polish Coastal Zone
Purpose: Different types of crime occurring in or near tourist areas is an important issue. Lack of knowledge of dangerous places and reduced vigilance due to the holiday mood make tourists more vulnerable to criminal activities. This thesis, popular in literature, was subjected to empirical verification in this article on the example of Poland, which has a coastline of 770 km along the southern Baltic Sea. Approach/Methodology/Design: The study was based on quantitative data on crime and tourism traffic available for the coastal zone of Poland at the level of 15 counties and city counties, and the extensive analysis of the literature. The tourist traffic data were collected for the number of tourists served in accommodation establishments in total and in hotels. For these two types of accommodation establishments, the four data categories were used. They were all analyzed in absolute terms and per 100 sq km. Finally, 16 indicators of tourist traffic were used in the analysis. Data on the number of committed crimes registered by Police were obtained according to the seven types of crimes. They were all analyzed in absolute terms and per 100 sq km. Two methods of quantitative spatial analysis of all above-mentioned indicators were used, the location quotient – LQ, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient – R, in conjunction with the adjusted coefficient of determination ARSQ. Findings: The concentration of tourist traffic is undoubtedly one of the reasons for the concentration of crime in the coastal zone of Poland. The analysis of density indicators confirmed that the high spatial concentration of tourism promotes a high spatial concentration of crime. Correlation analysis confirmed that both tourists in total and foreign tourists, especially those accommodated in hotels, are particularly vulnerable to criminal crimes. A strong correlation between crimes against property and against life and health has been unequivocally confirmed. Practical Implications: The results of the research showed that to reduce crime in coastal tourist areas, the scope of monitoring and supervision should be extended around hotels and facilities visited by wealthy and foreign tourists. Programs for making these tourists aware of the threats of crimes against property and against life and health should be implemented. Originality/Value: The presented research results are the first such attempt in the specific conditions of a country undergoing political transformation. A significant number of types of crime and forms of tourism were analyzed.