Qualitology: The Issue of Quality and its Assessment
Purpose: The aim of the work is to analyze and present selected elements of qualitology, i.e., the concept of quality science shaped on the basis of the existing achievements of science and knowledge derived from practice. The scope of reality as the object of qualitative research and the main goals of qualitology, as well as the concepts of qualitology division were defined. Basic terms and definitions were adopted. The essence of quality, relativization of quality and determination of evaluated quality as well as quantitative reflection of the quality of items were presented. Design/Methodology/Approach: The method of literature analysis and logical construction was used in the work. The analysis of the theoretical sources of qualitology allowed for the formulation of the main objectives of the science of quality and a synthetic approach to the terms used, i.e., quality, evaluated quality, and qualitative operations. Findings: The current achievements of qualitology provide the basis for ordering and standardizing the concepts and nomenclature related to quality. The set of principles, operations, and methods of qualitative mapping of reality create the basis for the study of the impact of various changes and their factors on quality, the study of the interdependence between various factors affecting quality and the detection of quantitative relationships between the quality of items and factors influencing it. Practical Implications: The qualitological concept of relativization and the operation of quality evaluation make it possible to take into account various factors in the study and assessment of the quality of items. This is of particular importance in managing the quality of products, taking into account, e.g., each stage of their product life cycle. The method of quantifying the quality is the basis for the comparative analysis of various products, processes, or procedures. Originality/Value: The work refers to the concept of shaping the science of quality, basic principles, and quality operations developed by the main representatives of the Polish school of qualitology. The research results present, in the synthetic manner, the actual state of the theoretical development, practical application, and the current achievements of qualitology.