Pollution Emission Costs in Transport: A Comparative Analysis of Different Transport Modes
Purpose: The development of transportation is considered as one of the main elements of the economy development, but on the other hand its negative impact on the environment is noticeable. Based on the observation of the increase in demand for transport, more and more attention is paid to qualitative aspects. These include, among others, efficiency, safety, as well as the continuous efforts to reduce external costs, mainly related to the adverse impact on the environment. The aim of this paper is to calculate the emission of pollutants in road and inland waterway and to estimate the external costs of this emission on a selected route in Poland. Design/Methodology/Approach: A simplified version of the estimation of external costs of air pollutants was carried out based on establishing external effects expressed in a quantitative form and assigning monetary values to them. Estimation of greenhouse gas emissions (CH4, CO2, N2O) from motor vehicles has been carried out using the COPERT IV program. For inland waterway transport, the emissions were estimated based on studies conducted by PLANCO (PLANCO Consulting GmbH, Germany). Findings: The results presented in this article are a contribution to further research in this field, especially in relation to the currently carried out traffic surveys (GPR), as well as a basis for analysis of the management of transport systems and the implementation of modern technologies to improve environmental transport relations. Practical Implications: This paper uses the method of calculating the quantity of pollutants emitted to the air from road transport and inland waterway on the route Gliwice - Szczecin, identifying the harmful substances influencing the natural environment and estimating the value of external costs of these pollutants emissions based on the quantity of polutants emitted by the means of transport used. Originality/value: The paper develops an experimental method for determining the cost of emissions from transportation activities.