The Impact of Religiosity and Gender on Reflective and Intuitive Thinking – The Case of Poland
Purpose: Cognitive styles are preferred modes of intellectual functioning that meet individual human needs. Among the most important, cognitive psychology includes impulsivity and reflexivity, which are revealed during cognitive problem solving. In this study, we examine the relationship between the tendency to think impulsively or reflectively and gender and declared religiosity. Methodology: In this study, we will use the Cognitive Reflective Test (CRT), a simple and widely used tool examining inclination for impulsive or reflective thinking. A total of 511 Polish participants (students on master’s studies in economic major) completed two types of CRT tests (3- and 7-question versions). Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, tau-Kendall correlation, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney test. Findings: Results indicated that highly religious Polish survey respondents scored lower on the CRT compared to non-religious and that men scored higher on the CRT than women. Additionally, the CRT7 being less publicly known produced more impulsive (fewer correct answers) scores than the CRT3 version among both men and women. Practical Implications: The results provide information that female and highly religious Poles surveyed in our study display an impulsive cognitive style, while male and low religious think more reflectively. Originality/value: The results contribute to the diversity of research on the relationship between cognitive style and religiosity or gender by using tests of Polish survey respondents.