Ways Residents of Large Cities in Poland, Commute before and during the Covid-19 Pandemic
Purpose: The article concerns the issues related to the methods of movement of people in urban areas by means of cars, trams, buses, bicycles, e-scooters, electric scooters and on foot. Its purpose is to present selected factors determining this choice. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors, using the proprietary questionnaire, conducted a survey among the inhabitants of one of the largest cities in Poland - Szczecin to determine their current preferences related to the way of movement before and during the pandemic caused by the Covid-19 virus. Non-parametric dual and multiple comparison tests, the Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis rank ANOVA were performed. The Cronbach's α coefficient was used to assess the reliability of the measuring scale. Findings: The conducted analyzes allowed to determine the most common ways of traveling, the level of their safety and accessibility for residents. Statistically significant differences were found in respondents' opinions, depending on age, gender, industry, and education. The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on opinions on the frequency of use, safety, and availability of means of transport in Szczecin was verified. The analysis showed a slight decrease in the declared frequency of using the analyzed means of transport and no decrease in the safety assessment of the analyzed means of transport during the application of the restrictions related to Covid-19. Practical Implications: The presented analysis and assessment of the ways in which the inhabitants of Szczecin move could be used in rational actions of the local authorities aimed at improving the quality of life of the inhabitants and friendly to the inhabitants of the city in the context of public and individual transport. Originality/Value: The authors compared the preferences of the ways of movement and the implemented solutions with the parameters of their effectiveness, based on the experimental results and foreign literature.