Assessment of Barriers to the Implementation of Intelligent (Smart) Logistics on the Example of Selected Systems Among Manufacturing Companies in Poland
Purpose: The development of intelligent logistics is the result of implementations made under the idea known as Industry 4.0. Intelligent logistics includes many systems whose task is to improve the efficiency of logistics processes. Despite many advantages, Polish enterprises are not willing to apply these solutions in practice. This is due to the existence of barriers that effectively limit the implementation of these systems. The article aims to identify barriers and assess their negative significance in the process of ISL implementation in the context of intelligent logistics. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted in 2020 on a sample of 2,500 enterprises operating in Poland. An original questionnaire prepared for this study was used. The researchers used statistical summaries of structure indices to answer the researchers' questions. The Kruskal-Wallis test and the t-Student test were used to verify the hypotheses. Findings: The results show that the barriers have a important negative impact on the decisions of enterprises regarding the implementation of intelligent systems in logistics. To a large extent, the level of impact depends on many factors (the size and age of the enterprise, the type of barrier or the number of implemented systems). Internal barriers are more negative than external ones. The conclusions clearly indicate that the greatest obstacles exist inside the entities - the importance of external barriers, i.e., those coming from the environment, are less important. Practical Implications: The posted results are important for scientists and practitioners dealing with logistics or directly related to the use of cyber-physical systems in production and logistics processes. Originality/value: Recognition of the negative importance of barriers in the implementation of intelligent systems in logistics among Polish manufacturing companies.