The Criterion of Human Resources in the Assessment of the Degree of the Engagement of Knowledge in the Activities of Enterprises
Purpose: The objective of this paper was to develop a new classification of the types of activity of enterprises, taking into account the degree of involvement of research and development in production and service activity. Design/Methodology/Approach: After analyzing the subject scope of the statistical surveys that are the source of data on which the calculation of the two proposed indicators (degree of R&D intensity, R&D personnel involvement ) was based, a classification of R&D intensity sectors was developed. The experimental classification was prepared for Polish enterprises, for which statistical material was collected for the years 2014-2016. Findings: Among classifications created due to the experimental work, one of the most reliable classifications was selected. In the classification framework, the R&D intensity is divided into three sectors: intensified R&D intensity, moderate R&D intensity, low R&D intensity. The compatibility of this classification based on R&D expenditures with the classification taking into account R&D personnel makes it possible to work out a unified classification for leaders and non-leaders innovators Practical Implications: After analyzing the magnitude of the R&D personnel involvement rate (measured in %) across all business groupings, a classification was created distinguishing three sectors: intensive R&D personnel involvement (R&D personnel involvement rate value above 2%), moderate R&D personnel involvement (0.25% to 2%), and low R&D personnel involvement (less than 0.25%). This delimitation can be considered a proposal for a universal method. Originality/Value: The developed and estimated indicator of R&D personnel involvement is a new approach not used before in sectoral comparisons.