Management of Expenditure on the Development of Higher Education – Poland as Compared to EU Countries
Purpose: The objective of the article is to identify, analyse and diagnose the current state of management of expenditure on the development of higher education in Poland as compared to other EU countries, and thus to indicate the necessary changes and recommendations. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research relied mainly on data on the number of students and universities, enrolment, and expenditure on higher education. Polish and foreign data sources were applied to determine diversity of the distribution of students in Poland among public and private universities as well as the dynamics of the changes. In comparison to other EU countries, the changes in the coefficients of the level of higher education were analysed and the enrolment indices were compared with the indices of human development. Expenditure on higher education was examined with various approaches. In the study, statistical methods were used to describe the current trends. Findings: During the study period, the structure of tertiary education, measured by the ratio of state-owned to private universities, changed from 95:5 to 34:66. However, in terms of the number of students, state-owned universities played a dominant role. In this case, the proportions hardly changed during the study period and were 77:23 at its end. Since 2007, a slowdown in the increase in the number of students has been observed in Poland, and since 2010 the same tendency was observed in the number of universities. Practical Implications: In the long-term Polish education will develop efficiently, strengthen Poland's integration in Europe and, as a result, translate into the qualitative development of higher education in Poland. Originality/value: Knowledge of trends and levels of development of higher education, defining the role of the state as compared to the other members of the EU are important for policymakers, helping them consciously to identify prospects for development, and thus effectively manage expenses by minimizing existing risks.