Spatial Analysis of the Relationship between Health Capital and the Level of Health Care Expenditure in Poland
Purpose: Considering the importance of social health in the national economy the aim of the article is to diagnose the level of health capital and health expenditure as well as to analyse the impact of expenditure on the level of health capital and to assess the spatial differentiation of their spatial distribution. Approach/Methodology/Design: The analysis was carried out in spatial terms at the NUTS 3 level for the years 2013-2019; the main source of data was the Local Data Bank of Statistics Poland. Taxonomic hierarchization methods (model-free) and classification of multi-feature objects were used. As a result, each object has been assigned a synthetic measure-indicator of the level of health capital (HCV) and an indicator of the level of expenses on health (HCM). Findings: There is a statistically significant negative nature of the relationship between the analysed categories. The spatial systems of the analysed measures differed from each other. One of the features most strongly influencing the level of health capital turned out to be the location and distance of a given unit (county) in relation to a larger urban centre, which is the centre of local growth. Practical Implications: The used approach at the local level provides institutions, local government authorities and all other interested units with important information that can be used in planning specific instruments supporting individuals with a deficit level of health capital. Originality/Value: In this paper has been suggested that it is necessary to increase expenditure on health in units with a relatively low level of health capital to deal with inequalities in this area and support local development. Otherwise, local governments that are currently in the worst situation in the future may never even come close to the level of the phenomenon in the most developed areas, which at the same time will constantly distance the others.