Current State and Circumstances of Agri-Environmental Policies and Eco-Services Development in Poland
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the efficiency of realized Agri-Climate-Environmental policies in view of ecosystem services development, and to point out the circumstances determining the effects of such policies. Design/Methodology/Approach: Considering the case of Poland, using implementation data from the period of validity of the Rural Development Program for 2014-2020, in terms of the Agri-Environmental-Climate Measure and selected indicators from created datasets allows the evaluation of the effectiveness of actions taken in the case of ecosystem service development. Findings: As part of the Agri-Environmental-Climate [Action]Measure, beneficiaries fulfill obligations consisting of the implementation of detailed requirements, favoring various elements of the natural environment in rural areas. The results of the analysis concerning the implementation of the measure show a significant regional variation both in terms of the number of applications and the value of the amounts paid out. The assessment of the development of ecosystem services requires the definition of specific indicators. Practical Implications: The results of the analysis may indicate improvement directions for methods and tools used for evaluating the effectiveness of Agri-Climate-Environmental policies and their programming in the case of ecosystem service development. Originality/Value: Quantitative reports presented indicators useful for the evaluation of ex-ante policy results, and expectations of policy changes in the future.