The Personal Security of Inhabitants of Selected Countries in the Light of Research on the Perceiving of Threats Caused by the COVID-19 Virus
Purpose: The objective of this article is to identify and recognise the level and scope of disruptions caused to personal security by the COVID-19 virus, and assess the differences in the perceiving of personal security by inhabitants of three selected countries. Design/Methodology/Approach: A systematic review of international publications on the theory of threat and signal perceiving and a diagnostic survey carried out using the CAWI (Computer-Assisted Web Interview) methods were used. Statistical methods involving a proportion difference test between two populations were used to assess the significant differences in the perceiving of personal security by inhabitants of the selected countries in each of the examined dimensions. Three populations were considered - Polish, Ukrainian and Bulgarian citizens. Findings: The results show that no significant differences were observed in the perceiving of personal security among the inhabitants of the analysed countries. Also, threats assessment depends on individual cognitive processes, including an individual interpretation of threats, and differences exist between assessments and opinions regarding threats and security from the period of May to June, 2020, and those made at the beginning of the pandemic. Practical Implications: Quite large groups of people in each examined country felt their personal security was partially, or to a small extent, compromised due to COVID-19. This is illustrated in the models presented in the paper, where the sense of personal security stems from the individual perceiving of threats. Originality/Value: This article is a compilation of the results of years of research related to the effectiveness of the perceiving of threat signals in the following areas: economy, medical rescue, police, fire department and army operations. The results of empirical research on the perceiving of personal security in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, are essential addition of this topis.