Understanding the Policy Instruments Mix in Higher Education R&D: A Policy Scale Development
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the policy instruments mix in higher education research and development (HERD) using structural equation modeling. This modeling helps us to understand the total structure of the factors affecting the policy mix as well as its main actors in a political system. Design/Methodology/Approach: Thirty two identified actors (official institutions) through upstream documents were designed by the method of social network analysis in the form of a political network and their role in policy instruments mix was investigated through their amount of centrality in the network. Also, indicators affecting policy instrument mix were identified using the view of 13 Iranian higher education policy experts. These indicators were categorized in the form of causal, contextual, intervening factors, main phenomena, mechanisms and outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to confirm the model. Findings: According to the results, the lack of policy logic is the main reason for the lack of justice in the policy instruments mix. Choosing a logic or theory of justice that is the basis of all the instruments in research and development decisions can lead to the integration of concepts and instruments mix. Practical Implications: There is no doubt that the dominant range of thought can have a greater impact on politics in any state, but choosing observers from other aspects of thought will always lead to more effective policies. Originality/Value: How to form policy instruments mix in policymakers' mind has not been investigated in any study so far, and this study explores the indicators governing policy instrument mix.