The Future of EU: Towards a two Speed Europe

Prof. dr hab. Jarosław Kundera
European Research Studies Journal, Volume XXII, Issue 3, 261-281, 2019
DOI: 10.35808/ersj/1469


After more than 60 years of successful integration the EU entered the deepest crisis since its establishment. In this long perspective the benefits of integration were undisputed, which justify its increasing extention to the new members and new field of activities. Meanwhile, the EU passes lately through several problems related to economic downturn in the euro area, Brexit and the crisis of refugees. These crises have given rise to discussions about the best methods of overcoming them. One of the possible solutions leading to rescue an idea of European integration is to escape forward through the implementation of “Europe two speed”. The purpose of this article is to analyze the concept of “Europe of two speed”, its rationale and the advantages and the possibility of its implementation in the context of the further evolution of the EU. The point is that some European countries see the need for deeper integration as panacea for crisis, but others do not see sense in improving the mechanism for political integration and rather opting out for economic cooperation limited to the single market or even free trade.

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